Links among human health, animal health, and ecosystem health.

Annu Rev Public Health. 2013 Mar 18;34:189-204. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114426. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Links among human health, animal health, and ecosystem health.

Abstract

In the face of growing world human and animal populations and rapid environmental change, the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health are becoming more evident. Because animals and humans have shared risk to health from changing environments, it seems logical to expand the perspective of public health beyond a single species to detect and manage emerging public health threats. Mitigating the effects of climate change, emerging pathogens, toxicant releases, and changes in the built environment requires a retooling of global public health resources and capabilities across multiple species. Furthermore, human and animal health professionals must overcome specific barriers to interprofessional collaboration to implement needed health strategies. This review outlines the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health and the public health challenges and opportunities that these links present.